Author Biograhy: Ekaterina Mironova is a co-founder of CBD Life Mag and an avid blogger on the Hemp, CBD and fashion subjects. Ekaterina is also on the panel of the CBD reviewers and she most enjoys CBD gummies. Ekaterina has developed a real interest in CBD products after she started taking CBD tincture oil to help her ease her anxiety that was part-and-parcel of her quick-paced city career. When Ekaterina realised just how effective CBD is, she has founded CBD Life Magazine along with some of her friends.
When she is not blogging, you are likely to see Ekaterina in front of her souped up Alienware laptop gaming or delving into the world of Cryptocurrency. Ekaterina also boasts a very large collection of Penny Black Posts stamps and silver hammered Medieval coins. Ekaterina’s other interest include swimming, painting, traveling, shopping, spending a good time with her friends and helping animals in need.
Ekaterina has featured in some of the leading publications such as Vanity Fair, Country Living, Vogue, Elle, New York Times and others.
CBD Life Mag
A easy, compact and stylish pod system that boasts IP67 waterproof, dustproof and shockproof features. This futuristic styled gadget is powered by a constructed-in 800mAh battery and delivers a hard and fast 15W of energy output. Products provided on this website online often aren’t meant as nicotine substitute treatment or as a smoking cessation product. We present a wide range of e liquids suited to all forms of vapers from these beginning out to those that have been vaoing with us since 2008.
You’ll find merchandise together with tanks, mods and kits by top producers from everywhere in the world, in addition to premium e-liquid producers. We’re always updating our alternative, so be sure to confirm back often, bear in mind when it’s gone it’s gone. Vaping know-how is advancing at a speedy payment and we pride ourselves on having the most recent and largest merchandise. So when you’re after a brand new vape equipment, looking for a model new e-liquid, or simply must refill on a couple of equipment, at Vape Shop we’ve you lined. A fashionable and rugged superior vape gadget, comprising of the dual battery powered SMOK Scar 18 mod capable of firing at as a lot as 230 watts, and the suitably paired TFV9 sub-ohm tank. Admittedly, most of us purchase our e-liquids and vaping gear on-line because it’s cheaper, additional useful and hassle-free. They are available a number of volumes and a few have multi-goal compatibility (could be utilized with either e-liquid or dry herb).
By working with what we deem to be solely one of the best vaping producers, you’ll be capable of ensure that the usual of the vape merchandise you purchase could also be of probably the greatest commonplace. Founded in 2008, we’re thought of considered one of many nation’s longest standing vape firms and have led the way in which not only with vape expertise nonetheless vape necessities and vapers’ rights. Our vape itemizing UK has been created by our enthusiastic group of vapers, along with the assistance from our prospects to help vapers within the UK to hunt out their native brick-and-mortar vape retailers.
Nicotine is an addictive substance and merchandise on this website online normally are not supposed to energise or revitalise. Mechanical Mods, Sub Tanks, RDAs and RTAs can value anyplace from slightly under 100 kilos to a few hundred kilos counting on the e-cigarette you’re buying. One of the quickest rising digital cigarette companies, renowned throughout the North East of England. Accessories Use this part to welcome clients to your retailer, say a bit about your model, or share info. With a contiguous metropolis area and a pure setting numerous from Pennine moorland’s to Airedale and Wharfedale valleys and floodplains, you are certain to benefit from life right here. Out of these, the cookies which are categorized as necessary are saved in your browser as they’re important for the working of primary functionalities of the web site. So should you’re after a mannequin new vape package, seeking a brand new e-liquid, or just wish to refill on a wide range of gear, at Vape Shop we’ve you coated.
This is topic to progress on the 5 checks and social distancing measures must be seen by most people. Temporary modifications have been made to the steering on the destruction of spoilt beer, cider, wine or made-wineif you’re a brewer, cider producer, winemaker or publican. Ivg Eliquid Blue Raspberry 6mg 10ml , UK has been made to the information on tax on the steering for Small Business Grants Fund and Retail, Hospitality and Leisure Grant Fund . A discretionary fund has been set as a lot as accommodate positive small corporations beforehand exterior the scope of the business grant funds scheme. Leicester-specific steering for social distancing during a neighborhood lockdown has moreover been updated. Promotional materials and steering have been shared to assist companies in selling the ‘Eat Out to Help Out’ scheme. If you aren’t sure about a product, billing or supply, please be free to contact our buyer assist desk for skilled help.
This permits you to check out completely fully completely different devices and liquids while saving each your time and money. Every day at the ‘Vape & Juice’ vapor retailer grind, is about becoming the UK’s biggest vape retailer on-line and offline. A vaping system such as the Voopoo Kits normally consists of a mouthpiece, battery, cartridge (containing the e liquid or e-juice), and heating element powered by a battery. When the system is on, the battery heats up the heating part, turning the contents of the E-liquid into an aerosol that’s inhaled into the lungs after which exhaled. So whether you would be merely starting or already a vaping veteran, the Eliquid Boutique will definitely cater for all of your vaping needs. You no longer have to fret about your personal house smelling like tobacco regularly, go to the Eliquid Boutique and purchase vapes and e-liquid with fruity or dessert flavours. Expect starter kits, perfect for people who want to vary from smoking to vaping, vape pods, tanks, and plenty extra.
So whether or not or not you’re merely beginning or already a vaping veteran, the Eliquid Boutique will certainly cater on your entire vaping desires. You no longer have to fret about your house smelling like tobacco regularly, go to the Eliquid Boutique and purchase vapes and e-liquid with fruity or dessert flavours. They have longer-lasting batteries, greater tank functionality and stronger heating mechanisms to provide the superb vaping expertise. Unlike the usual smoking where your simply buy a tobacco cigarette, gentle and puffing, vaping entails sophisticated digital items and e-liquids that you have to perceive. They have longer-lasting batteries, greater tank functionality and stronger heating mechanisms to offer the good vaping expertise. It best to start out out with further specific particular person-friendly gadgets like vape pens and heat as much as mods. We present a wide range of e liquids suited to all forms of vapers from these beginning out to those that have been vaoing with us since 2008.
Our on-line vape store presents a large number of vape juice flavours and products tailor-made to each newbie and superior vapers. Admittedly, most of us buy our e-liquids and vaping gear on-line as it is cheaper, extra handy and hassle-free.
However, purchasers have spoken and the selection is that No Match is, undoubtedly, a excessive vape retailer in Leeds. You ought to alternate between purchasing at an web vape store and your native brick-and-mortar vape store and this should hopefully result in a further fulfilling and rewarding experience as a vaper. If you haven’t vaped sooner than, vaping is also an thrilling however smok difficult journey. Unlike the usual smoking the place your merely purchase a tobacco cigarette, delicate and puffing, vaping entails tough electronic items and e-liquids that you have to perceive.
Vape Shop in Angus, UK
Unlike the standard smoking where your just buy a tobacco cigarette, light and puffing, vaping entails difficult electronic devices and e-liquids that you should understand. Investing in further advanced vaping hardware merely isn’t your typical cigalike you could get for slightly below a tenner at your native comfort retailer. Also, loads of e-cigarette mods and set-ups require some info to run them appropriately and safely, from fundamental ohms laws to coil setting up and battery safety. In return, we will require you to put our banner linking again to our web site by yourself house web page! Our vape shop listing advantages from tonnes of high quality traffic, which is able to help to increase the variety of visitors to your website and doubtlessly end in larger product sales. These shops will ship wherever within the UK, and most will ship to the EU and the US as well as other worldwide areas.
Understanding that the world of vaping is highly innovative, we strive to replace our products portfolio each week to bring you the most recent devices obtainable. While you might be tempted to stroll into a neighborhood brick and mortar vape shop, the Eliquid Boutique guarantees you a greater variety of vapes at a extremely considered worth as we now have decrease overheads.
Vape Shop in Powys, UK
You not have to fret about your own home smelling like tobacco on a regular basis, go to the Eliquid Boutique and buy vapes and e-liquid with fruity or dessert flavours. Understanding that the world of vaping is extremely revolutionary, we try to substitute our products portfolio each week to deliver you the latest devices available. While you could be tempted to stroll into an space brick and mortar vape store, the Eliquid Boutique guarantees you a larger variety of vapes at a extraordinarily thought of value as we now have lower overheads.
The grant shall be based mostly on the rateable worth of enterprise householders properties on 1 November 2020. Guidance outlining how trip entitlement and pay function in the midst of the coronavirus pandemic, the place it differs from the usual holiday entitlement and pay steering, is available on the market. A assortment internet page has been printed for the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme, it brings collectively the precept hyperlinks to degree companies to what they should do to make a declare. Changes have been made to insolvency regulation to alleviate burden on firms and assist restoration.
A new transport and journey steering hub on GOV.UK brings collectively info for folks utilizing transport or working contained in the transport sector by way of the Coronavirus outbreak. Our Vape Rewards Club is free to hitch and as member you will earn retailer credit with every buy. Make certain to examine how many ml of salt nicotine E-liquid with the nicotine stage in mg your vaporizer can cope with.
Vape Shop in Stockton-on-Tees, UK
You must alternate between shopping for at an online vape store and your native brick-and-mortar vape retailer and this may hopefully lead to a additional fulfilling and rewarding expertise as a vaper. We acknowledge how annoying and worsening it can be to wait in your e-juice to succeed in by means of your door. But until you uncover strategies to assemble coils and wick precisely, these tanks aren’t useful in case you’re a model new vaper.
Vape pens are available quite a couple of types and embody a tricky and fast voltage, sub-ohm tanks, variable voltage and variable temperature. Most may be reworked to mouth-to-lungs or direct-to-lung fashions by adjusting airflow consumption. But whenever you’d like bulk e-liquid with nicotine, we offershortfill e-liquidswhich have an area to go well with a 10ml nicotine shot and blend them up.
Vape Shop in Southend-on-Sea, UK
Pro vapers notably these in search of discretion when travelling or out-of-residence vaping favor them. Our E-Cigarettes starter kitscome ready put in with batteries, charger, and pre-stuffed cartridges. They moreover differ in types with some having choices like sub-ohm tanks, variable voltage and variable temperature. Powered by twin batteries, the Argus GT has a wattage differ of W and options an intensive temperature administration mode. Utilising the whole range of PnP coils along with an RBA coil, offering a bunch of vaping experiences. For vapers who wish to assemble, we provide premium coil wire and cotton wick which will assist you create your individual coils.
There isn’t any must navigate to and from completely different pages, all the outcomes for vape retailers in Bradford could possibly be found on this internet page. Before visiting a vape store in your native space, it is always sensible to research and get in touch with some vape retailers in your native house before venturing out. In return, we’d require you to place our banner linking again to our web site on your own home net web page! Our vape shop listing advantages from tonnes of quality site visitors, which is able to help to increase the variety of visitors to your web site and doubtlessly lead to larger sales.
The Eliquid Boutiqueis an internet-based mostly vape retailer in Bradford UK. We supply vapeMODS, e-cigarette kits,tanks,coils,e-liquidsandnicotineand shortfill E-liquids in your ultimate vaping expertise. We give attention to having professional data, providing fantastic buyer care, and stocking a wide array of solely the very highest high quality vaping manufacturers from all over the world. Also the atomizer,vape coils are the devices that heat up the e-liquid to provide vaping vapour.
If a customer tells you they’ve examined constructive for coronavirus, you must tell them to self-isolate as soon as potential and to register their contacts with NHS Test and Trace. A YouTube video offering steering on tips about tips on how to make a declare for the Self-Employment Income Support Scheme has been up to date. The Government has prolonged measures to stop struggling corporations from eviction till the highest of September.
While you could be tempted to stroll into an area brick and mortar vape retailer, the Eliquid Boutique guarantees you a larger vary of vapes at a extremely thought-about value as we’ve lower overheads. This permits you to check out totally completely completely different gadgets and liquids whereas saving each your time and money. Admittedly, most of us buy our e-liquids and vaping gear online because it’s cheaper, further helpful and hassle-free. A trendy and rugged advanced vape system, comprising of the twin battery powered SMOK Scar 18 mod capable of firing at as much as 230 watts, and the suitably paired TFV9 sub-ohm tank. Admittedly, most of us buy our e-liquids and vaping gear on-line as it is cheaper, additional handy and hassle-free.
This accommodates internet hosting business meetings and events of up to 30 people in permitted venues. Where it’s potential to stay two metres you should proceed to take action, nonetheless the place this is not potential it have to be a ‘one metre plus’ policy. New steering shall be printed to support corporations – together with altering workplace layouts, defending screens, closing non-essential communal areas and so forth.
Eligible corporations are entitled to a cash grant from their native council for each 14-day interval they’re closed. The hubs can advise firms on native and nationwide enterprise assist along with schemes in place to assist companies by means of the current COVID-19 state of affairs. You shouldn’t use the log of purchaser particulars you would have collected to contact completely utterly totally different purchasers your self.
Whether you might be buying on-line or in-retailer in thought of considered one of our 150+ vape shops you’ll be able to see the most effective recommendation and data to be sure to get the most effective vape to meet your particular person wants. Our retailer employees are totally trained not just in our kits and liquids but in understanding what product is greatest for the client. Vape Superstore actually is the best on-line vape store for all your vaping needs, no matter your diploma of expertise or price range. If you’re looking out for e-liquid and vape hardware at a lowered value, then check out our vape clearance part.
Unlike the usual smoking the place your merely purchase a tobacco cigarette, delicate and puffing, vaping entails refined electronic devices and e-liquids that you need to perceive. The odds are, if you take the plunge and purchase your digital cigarette system on-line, you wouldn’t know recommendations on the way to make use of it correctly or may uncover that it’s not best for you. The employees at most UK local vape retailers are very helpful and accommodating and may most certainly be very joyful to debate your vaping wishes and advise you in your choice process. This can certainly assist you to to turn out to be an extra savvy vaper and it can be a lot of enjoyable. We are one of the major vape firms within the UK and we’ve been a fan favourite throughout the vaping group for years. The Eliquid Boutiqueis a web-based vape store in Bradford UK. We provide vapeMODS, e-cigarette kits,tanks,coils,e-liquidsandnicotineand shortfill E-liquids in your ultimate vaping experience. Our hardware and e-liquids are carefully chosen from the most reputed vape brands like,Aspire,Vaporesso,SMOK, Global Hubb, Dr Frost, amongst others to verify we ship you only one of the best.
Investing in extra superior vaping hardware just isn’t your typical cigalike that you could get for just under a tenner at your native comfort retailer. Juul, Aspire, Smok and extra, our various of pods and pod kits is second to none – whether you’re looking out for your first pod instruments or need a secondary gadget for on the go. Shortfills, salt nicotine, nic footage, TPD 10mls and concentrates – Discover the most important choice of eliquid available within the UK. Our mission is to give you the most suitable option of authentic vape merchandise at the easiest prices, with top-of-the-line ranges of customer help.
It most attention-grabbing to start with further individual-nice gadgets like vape pens and heat as a lot as mods. We provide a wide range of e liquids suited to all types of vapers from these beginning out to those who have been vaoing with us since 2008. All of our e-liquids are of a premium commonplace so that you can make sure the e liquid you vape is of the easiest necessities. The Eliquid Boutiqueis an internet-based vape store in Bradford UK. We supply vapeMODS, e-cigarette kits,tanks,coils,e-liquidsandnicotineand shortfill E-liquids in your final vaping expertise.
Unlike the same old smoking the place your merely buy a tobacco cigarette, delicate and puffing, vaping entails robust digital items and e-liquids that you must perceive. Also the atomizer,vape coils are the devices that warmth up the e-liquid to offer vaping vapour. Unlike the normal smoking the place your simply buy a tobacco cigarette, mild and puffing, vaping entails troublesome digital units and e-liquids that you should understand. They have longer-lasting batteries, bigger tank capability and stronger heating mechanisms to provide the superb vaping expertise. We goal to bring you one of the best and widest range of top of the range e-liquid from all corners of the globe. Giving you the ultimate alternative of over 2,500 e liquid flavours and saving you money and time within the process.
Vape Superstore really is the most effective on-line vape retailer for all of your vaping desires, no matter your stage of expertise or funds. If you’re looking for e-liquid and vape hardware at a decreased worth, then try our vape clearance half. The greatest prime quality e-cigarettes within the marketplace quality eliquid flavours and the popular vape merchandise. Be the first to hear about new merchandise, unbelievable particular provides, and vaping news. SMKD presents numerous E liquid and hardware to swimsuit all of the vaping wants of our customers. Our vape itemizing UK has been created by our enthusiastic staff of vapers, together with the help from our shoppers to assist vapers contained in the UK to go looking their native brick-and-mortar vape shops. Our vape shop listing benefits from tonnes of top quality website visitors, which is able to assist to increase the variety of pals to your web site and doubtlessly end in larger gross sales.
We respect how annoying and aggravating it can be to attend in your e-juice to achieve through your door. You not have to fret about your individual residence smelling like tobacco frequently, go to the Eliquid Boutique and purchase vapes and e-liquid with fruity or dessert flavours. We use a dependable and quick courier for our e-liquids to confirm almost instant gratification. We just be sure you’ll be the first one to listen to regarding the arrivals of our new products, flavours and more! As the most important distributors of vaping merchandise inside the UK, we get our palms on the latest merchandise sooner than anyone else. You might discover totally completely different vape directories to be harder to navigate as you have to click on on on through many pages till you uncover your native vape retailer in Bradford. There isn’t any must navigate to and from totally different pages, all of the outcomes for vape retailers in Bradford could also be discovered on this net web page.
All of our e-liquids are of a premium normal so as to make sure the e liquid you vape is of the best necessities. So you have to select from trusted producers and purchase from reputed retailers to ensure you buy the best qualities. Our vape directory UK has been created by our enthusiastic staff of vapers, together with the assistance from our shoppers to help vapers within the UK to search out their native brick-and-mortar vape shops. Whether it’s e-liquids or e-cigarettes, we’re dedicated to bringing you probably the greatest vape merchandise on the UK e-cig market in addition to a safer different to smoking. All in a single e-cig kits for newbies, these compact gadgets make for the right starter gear.
They have an excellent line of starter kits which might be perfect for brand spanking new vapers who are in search of an introduction to the world of vaping. Their UK-made e-liquids are available in a variety of fully totally different PG/VG ratios and are extremely reasonably priced for the vaper on a value vary.
Also, a lot of e-cigarette mods and set-ups require some info to run them precisely and safely, from primary ohms legislation to coil growing and battery safety. See what eliquid flavours and vape kits our workers are vaping on from our giant number of over 3,000 flavours in 10ml nicotine containing eliquids, salt nic and shortfills. So you have to choose from trusted manufacturers and purchase from reputed retailers to ensure you buy the simplest qualities. Welcome to our UK Vape Shop Directory the place you’ll find your native vape retailers in Bradford. The Eliquid Boutiqueis an internet vape retailer in Bradford UK. We provide vapeMODS, e-cigarette kits,tanks,coils,e-liquidsandnicotineand shortfill E-liquids on your final vaping experience. Our hardware and e-liquids are rigorously chosen from probably the most reputed vape brands like,Aspire,Vaporesso,SMOK, Global Hubb, Dr Frost, amongst others to confirm we ship you solely the most effective.
We inventory a wide range of premium merchandise together with vape kits, e-liquids,vape tanksand next-generationbox mods, all from high manufacturers, to ensure you get probably the most out of your vaping experience. Admittedly, most of us purchase our e-liquids and vaping gear on-line as it is cheaper, more handy and problem-free. Mechanical Mods, Sub Tanks, RDAs and RTAs can cost wherever from slightly below 100 kilos to some hundred kilos counting on the e-cigarette you’re purchasing for. Investing in additional superior vaping hardware isn’t your typical cigalike you can get for just below smok v12 ptank m4 0 17omh 3 pack a tenner at your local comfort retailer. Also, plenty of e-cigarette mods and set-ups require some information to run them appropriately and safely, from elementary ohms regulation to coil developing and battery safety. Simply contact us at with your ad and banner and we’re going to place it on the associated listing web web web page relying on the geographical location of your vape retailer or vape enterprise. The Eliquid Boutiqueis an web vape shop in Bradford UK. We present vapeMODS, e-cigarette kits,tanks,coils,e-liquidsandnicotineand shortfill E-liquids in your ultimate vaping experience.
Vapestore only inventory one of the best e-liquids, that includes a galaxy of flavours throughout every sort of e-liquid. Admittedly, most of us purchase our e-liquids and vaping gear online as it’s cheaper, extra handy and trouble-free. However, paying a visit to your local vape shop could be particularly essential if you’re a novice vaper who doesn’t have a clue concerning the subtle vary of e-cigarettes out there available on the market. Mechanical Mods, Sub Tanks, RDAs and RTAs can price wherever from just below 100 pounds to some hundred pounds relying on the e-cigarette you are buying.
As the most important distributors of vaping merchandise throughout the UK, we get our palms on the newest merchandise before anybody else. You could discover completely totally different vape directories to be tougher to navigate as you need to click on by way of many pages until you uncover your native vape store in Bradford.
We merely be sure you’ll be the primary one to hear concerning the arrivals of our new products, flavours and additional! As the biggest distributors of vaping merchandise throughout the UK, we get our palms on the latest merchandise sooner than anybody else. The Eliquid Boutiqueis an internet vape store in Bradford UK. We present vapeMODS, e-cigarette kits,tanks,coils,e-liquidsandnicotineand shortfill E-liquids in your ultimate vaping expertise. The closing positive corporations and venues in Leicester steering has been updated to mirror the changes to the Leicester Regulations that took impression from 1 August. People ought to solely socialise indoors inside their very own households or assist bubbles in areas with native restrictions.
But should you’d like bulk e-liquid with nicotine, we offershortfill e-liquidswhich have an area to swimsuit a 10ml nicotine shot and mix them up. Our finest selling flavours embrace Menthol, Blackcurrant and Iced Blackcurrant nevertheless with a lot of of flavours to pick from we’re assured you’ll uncover your good one.
More info has been launched on the model new Eat Out to Help Out Scheme together with info for firms on tips on the way to register your small enterprise for the Eat Out to Help Out Scheme. New steering has been printed on claiming for people Shisha Delivery who’re paid by the use of PAYE nonetheless not essentially employees in employment regulation. Access to Work is a publicly funded employment assist programme that targets to assist additional disabled individuals start or stay in work. Guidance for companies and organisations on tips about the way orange popsicle premium e liquid by e luxe london 3mg nicotine 50vg 50pg to recognise, comprise and report incidents of coronavirus (COVID-19). Action participating in enjoying cards have furthermore been developed to cowl a range of firms and organisations to produce specific recommendation on the problems each type of organisation could face. We are working intently with the Cabinet Office and Department of Health and Social Care to spice up consciousness of the Government’s steerage for vacationers who fall unwell whilst on vacation in England. If you’re new to vaping, you may need some questions you want answering ahead of you start to make your alternative.
- They started off by specializing in delivering one of the best e-liquid buyers might discover, and they also haven’t strayed from this technique.
- 123 Vape shares a wide range of excessive-quality e-liquids that may help you benefit from a tailored vaping expertise.
- Accessories Use this section to welcome customers to your store, say a bit about your brand, or share information.
- As the most important distributors of vaping merchandise within the UK, we get our palms on the latest merchandise earlier than anybody else.
- In case you need to return your order, we offer a 30-day returns policy on all our merchandise.
Eligible firms are entitled to a cash grant from their native council for each 14-day interval they’re closed. The hubs can advise companies on native and nationwide enterprise help together with schemes in place to assist companies via the current COVID-19 state of affairs. The Government has announced two new coaching programmes for small firms on administration, productiveness and drawback-fixing skills. The guidance for passengers covers the travel experience step-by-step, together with suggestion on journey planning, social distancing, cleansing, face coverings, use of PPE and air transfer. Understanding that the world of vaping may be very innovative, we try to replace our merchandise portfolio each week to deliver you the newest gadgets obtainable.
Capable of as a lot as 100W along with a number of totally different output modes it’s moreover a part of the hardiest range of vapes round. All businesses and venues can proceed to operate, in a COVID-Secure technique, other than those who hold closed in regulation, similar to nightclubs. If a lodge has totally completely different venues inside it, similar to a restaurant or bar, separate QR code posters should be displayed in each of these. Guests can verify into these areas allowing them to be despatched notifications with public properly being advice if needed. Cafes and occasional retailers are handled as restricted companies for the needs of the brand new native alert stage rules (the similar as consuming locations, bars & pubs and so forth).
Giving you the last word varied of over 2,500 e liquid flavours and saving you time and money throughout the course of. Juul, Aspire, Smok and additional, our different of pods and pod kits is second to none – whether or not or not or not you’re looking for your first pod kit or desire a secondary gadget for on the go. Shortfills, salt nicotine, nic pictures, TPD 10mls and concentrates – Discover the biggest selection of eliquid on the market inside the UK. Our mission is to give you probably the greatest variety of genuine vape merchandise at the best possible prices, with the highest ranges of buyer support.